FIP-0060 Source

TitleSet market deal maintenance interval to 30 days
AuthorJakub Sztandera, @Zenground0, Alex North
TypeTechnical (Core)

Spec Sections

FIP-0060: Set market deal maintenance interval to 30 days

Simple Summary

Reduce the built-in storage market actor’s deal maintenance interval from 1 day to 30 days (86400 epochs).


Filecoin tipset execution includes a facility for scheduled execution of actor code at the end of every epoch. This “cron” activity has a real validation cost, which we can account in gas units, but is not paid for by any party (no tokens are burnt as a gas fee).

As network activity has grown, the amount of work done in cron has increased. Recent analysis shows that cron execution is frequently consuming 80 billion gas units each epoch. For context, the block gas target is 5 billion, so a tipset with the expected five blocks is <25 billion.

The built-in market actor is consuming 85% of cron execution (73B gas / epoch). It performs deal maintenance (transferring incremental payments) on a regular interval of 2880 epochs for each deal. By increasing this maintenance interval we can quickly reduce the validation cost enough to buy us time to develop a more permanent solution while deal growth continues.

Change Motivation

A fast and predictable tipset validation time is important to the ability of validating nodes to sync the chain quickly (especially when catching up), and critical for block producers to be able to produce new blocks for timely inclusion. Cron is currently consuming a multiple of the target computational demands for all tipset validation. Although there is significant buffer in target validation times to account for network delays and the variability of expected consensus, cron execution is beginning to threaten chain quality and minimum hardware specs for validators.

Cron is very convenient for some maintenance operations, but is essentially a subsidy from the network to whichever actors get the free execution (which is only ever built-in actors). Subsidised, automatic daily settlement of deals is far from the kind of critical network service for which cron was intended, and of zero value for the 98% of deals today that have zero fee.

The number of deals brokered by the built-in market have increased greatly over the past year. As we expect this to grow much more, we must address this risk to chain quality.


Set the interval at which the built-in market performs deal maintenance from 1 day to 30 days.


Change the built-in market actor’s computation of the subsequent maintenance epoch for a deal to be independent of the last-scheduled epoch, and instead always equal to the next epoch that is greater than the current epoch and equal to the deal’s ID modulo DEAL_UPDATES_INTERVAL.

This change does not require a stop-the-world migration at the time of activation. Instead, the maintenance for each deal will be rescheduled according to the new interval when a deal is first processed during the 2880 epochs after this change is activated.

Design Rationale

We expect this change to reduce the per-epoch gas consumption of built-in market deal maintenance by a factor of approximately 30 (from 73B to 2.4B), down to about 10% of target tipset validation time.

According to, as of 4 March 2023 there are 22.6 million active deals and the trailing 90-day growth rate is 94 thousand per day. If this growth rate continues, the deal count will double in approximately 240 days. Thus we might reasonably expect at least six months before built-in market deal maintenance rises to 5B gas, or 20% of target tipset validation time. During this time, we expect to develop changes to permanently remove per-deal maintenance operations from cron execution.


As the cron workload is expected to increase as more deals come on board, a short-term mitigation is necessary. It is not possible to specify a fixed threshold after which this cron execution would tangibly affect network participants, but it is well beyond our comfort zone already.

Developing and deploying a permanent resolution to this issue will take more time than we think is prudent to allow the situation to continue.

Simplicity and alternatives

As a temporary resolution, this proposal aims for maximum simplicity. Leaving the state schema and all essential operations intact makes this a tightly scoped change that presents minimal risk.

We considered an alternative of splitting the built-in market’s deals into two groups: those that have non-zero payments to process (about 2% of deals today), and those that don’t. We rejected this option because it is significantly more complex that this proposal, while still offering only a temporary solution to the problem.

Backwards Compatibility

This proposal changes the behaviour of the built-in actors and thus requires a network upgrade. It does not change the state schema or interpretation, or require any migration.

Off-chain parties that relied on daily settlement of deal payments may need to adapt to new assumptions.

Test Cases

To be provided with implementation.

Security Considerations

The scheduling of cost-free execution is subject to risk that some party could influence the schedule in order to overload some epochs with excessive work. This risk is already considered in scheduling of deal maintenance according to deal ID modulo some interval. This proposal does not change the security of this scheme.

This change aims to improve blockchain availability by decreasing the expected computational work of tipset validation to approximately 40% of the current level.

Incentive Considerations


Product Considerations

This proposal reduces the built-in market’s service level to participants, increasing the interval between automatic settlements from 1 day to 30 days. For the small proportion of deals that have non-zero payments, this will delay the availability to storage providers of payments for active deals, and the return to clients of funds for aborted deals.

If the maintenance period were to be extended much further, it might be necessary to add externally-invoked methods for explicit settlement. We expect this to be a part of any subsequent permanent resolution to this issue. We do not believe that any service level of automatic, subsidised settlement is sustainable or appropriate for the future.


Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.


Please cite this document as:

Jakub Sztandera, @Zenground0, Alex North, "FIP-0060: Set market deal maintenance interval to 30 days," Filecoin Improvement Proposals, no. 0060, March 2023. [Online serial]. Available: